Monday, December 21, 2015
Understanding resilience, Concept Definition Journal of Psychology Theory
Definition Resilience According to the Experts Psychology - According Reivich and Shatte (2002), resilience is the capacity to respond in a healthy and productive when facing adversity or trauma, where it is essential to manage the pressures of everyday life. Resilience is a set of mind that allows to look for new experiences and look at life as a progress. Resilience generate and maintain a positive attitude to be extracted. Individuals with good resilience understand that mistakes are not the end of everything. Individuals taking the meaning of the error and use the knowledge to achieve something higher. Individuals galvanize themselves and solve problems wisely, fully, and energetic.
Connor and Davidson (2003) says that resilience is a quality of a person in terms of ability to deal with suffering. Block & Kreman (Xianon & Zhang, 2007) states that resilience is used to express individual capability to survive / survive and are able to adapt in a state of stress and suffering.
Based on the above it can be concluded that resilience is the capacity of individuals to adapt to the circumstances, to respond in a healthy and productive to improve themselves, so as to face and cope with the stresses of everyday life.
Aspects of resilience
Based Reivich and Shatte (2002), there are seven capabilities that make up resilience, namely:
a. Control emotions
Controlling emotions is an ability to remain calm despite being under pressure. Individuals who have a good resilience, using a positive ability to help control the emotions, concentrate and behavior. Express emotions appropriately is part of resilience. Individuals who are not resilient are more likely to experience anxiety, sadness, and anger compared with other individuals, and experienced a tough time to regain self-control when experiencing disappointment. Individuals are more likely to get stuck in anger, sadness or anxiety, and less effective in solving problems.
b. The ability to control impulses
The ability to control impulses associated with emotional control. A strong individual to control his impulses tend mempu control his emotions. Feeling that challenges can improve the ability to control impulses and make more accurate thinking, which leads to better emotional control, and produce a more resilient behavior.
Individuals with good resilience are individuals who are optimistic, believing that things can change for the better. Individuals have hope for the future and can mengontroal direction of his life. Optimistic create a more healthy physical and not easily depressed. Optimistic shows that individuals confident in its ability to overcome the difficulties that can not be avoided in the future. It is associated with self-efficacy, the belief in the ability to solve problems and take over the world, which is important in the ability of resilience. Research shows that optimism and self-efficacy are related to one another. Optimistic spur individuals to find solutions and work hard to improve the situation.
d. The ability to analyze the causes of the problem
Analysis of the cause according to Martin Seligman, et al (in Reivich and Shatte, 2002), is a style of thinking that is very important to analyze the causes, namely style explained. It is the habit of the individual in explaining something good or bad happens to the individual. Individuals with good resilience most have cognitive ability to adapt and be able to recognize all the causes considerable difficulties encountered, without being stuck in a certain style of explaining. Individuals do not reflexively blame others for maintaining self esteemnya or free themselves from guilt. Individuals not squander resilience valuable inventory to reflect events or circumstances beyond the control of himself. Individual orients itself on the sources of problem solving into factors that can be controlled, and lead to change.
e. The ability to empathize Some individuals proficient in interpreting what the psychologists say as a non-verbal language of others, such as facial expressions, tone of voice, body language, and determine what others are thinking and feeling. Although individuals are not able to put themselves in the position of others, but was able to predict what people are feeling, and predict what might be done by others. In interpersonal relationships, ability to read non-verbal signs lucrative, where people need to feel and understand other people.
Self-efficacy is the belief that individuals can solve the problem, possibly through experience and belief in the ability to succeed in life. Self-efficacy makes individuals more effective in life. Individuals who are not convinced by efficacynya like a lost their identity, and inadvertently raised doubts himself. Individuals with good self efficacy, have confidence, grow the knowledge that he has the talent and skills, which can be used to control the environment.
g. The ability to achieve what is desired
Resilience makes individuals able to increase the positive aspects of life. Resilience is the source of the ability to achieve. Some people are afraid to reach for something, because it is based on previous experience, however, complicate the situation would always be avoided. Reaching for something in individuals who are influenced by fear in estimating the true limits of its capabilities.
Connor and Davidson (2003), says that resilience will be associated with the things below:
Personal competence, high standards and tenacity. This shows that people feel as a person who is able to achieve in a situation of deterioration or failure
Believe in yourself, have tolerance for negative affect and strong / tough to deal with stress, This is associated with calmness, quickly perform coping to stress, think carefully and stay focused despite being in trouble
Accept the changes positively and can create a secure connection (secure) with others. It's related to the ability to adapt or be able to adapt when facing changes
Control / restraint in achieving its objectives and how to ask for or get help from others
Spiritual influence, which is sure believes in God or fate.
Factors Affecting Resilience
According Holaday (Southwick, PC 2001), the factors that affect resilience are:
Social support, in the form of community support, personal support, cultural and familial support as well as the communities where individuals live
Cognitive skills, including intelligence, problem solving, the ability to avoid blaming yourself, personal control and spirituality
Psychological resources, ie internal locus of control, empathy and curiosity, tend to seek wisdom from every experience and always flexible in every situation
Sarafino (1997), defines social support as a feeling of comfort, respect, attention or help someone obtained from another person or group. Cohen and Syrne (1985) defines social support as a state useful or beneficial obtained individual from others either derived from social relations structurally include family / friends and educational institutions as well as derived from the social relations that are functional that include emotional support, information, assessment and instrumental.
Gottlieb (Smet, 1994) explains that social support is a real help or action given by people nearby can cause emotional reactions and behavioral changes in people who receive such assistance. Cohen & Syrne (1985) found social support derived from: work, family, spouse, friends in the neighborhood. Social support can effectively reduce the causes of psychological stress when facing difficult times (Cohen & Wills, Kessler & Mc Leod, and Littlefiled, et al).
Forms of social support (Sarafino, 1997):
Emotional Support (Emotional Support): regarding the expression of empathy, concern and attention to the persons concerned orag. Support brings a feeling of comfort, peace, a sense of belonging, and feel loved when stressed
Support award (Esteem support): support in the form of awards occurs via expression of respect (appreciation) positive reception for the person concerned.
Support for the provision of tools (Tangible or Instrumental Support): includes direct assistance such as lending money or objects
Support Information (Informational Support): support in the form of information may include the provision of advice, instructions, methods, or feedback